## How Do You Calculate Gravitational Potential Energy and Force?

A-Level Physics gravity calculations are either about calculating a scalar quantity which is gravitational potential energy or they are about calculating gravitational force, which is a vector. A typical gravitational potential energy question might be as follows: Use the following data to calculate the gravitational potential at the surface of the Moon. Mass of Earth […]

## Calculate Electric Potential and Field For Two Charges

We have two charges, one positive, one negative. How do we calculate the electric potential and field at some point nearby? Potential’s a scalar, so that’s pretty easy, but field is a bit more tricky because it requires vector addition.

## Particle Deflection in an Electric Field

An electron is whizzing between two plates with a potential difference across them generating a uniform electric field… what happens to its velocity, how much does it accelerate, and how much is it deflected?

## Specific Heat Capacity and Specific Latent Heat of Vaporisation

Boiling a kettle is simple to do and it involves a lot of juicy Physics. If you want to understand why the temperature stops rising at 100 centigrade, how much energy is required to boil the kettle, how long it takes, and how much water vaporises, and learn how to solve an A-Level question, read on.

If you are having difficulty finding the right integration method this summary sheet might help. It lists the integrals of common functions, trigonometric identities, integration by parts, substitution, a derivative divided by a function, partial fractions and more…

## How Variables Scale in Equations

You will have used equations all the time in science and maths, usually by plugging in numbers. For example, if we look at Newton’s second law and you know that mass is 1 kilogram and acceleration is 2 then the force is newtons. But there’s something else you can do with equations that is incredibly […]

## Radioactive Decay and Neanderthal Art

Were Neanderthals capable of producing art? Uranium-thorium dating applied to deposits on some paintings in Spain has revealed a remarkable fact: this was likely to be Neanderthal art. But how does this dating method work?

## Circle Theorems

Circle theorems are tricky to learn because they require you to quickly spot patterns that can appear distorted. We show how to learn these patterns using interactive examples that let you play with the shapes and see the angles change in real-time.